Today we’ll do a simple run through of a valuation method used to estimate the attractiveness of Magnolia Oil & Gas Corporation (NYSE:MGY) as an investment opportunity by estimating the company’s future cash flows and discounting them to their present value. We will use the Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) model on this occasion. Don’t get put off by the jargon, the math behind it is actually quite straightforward.
We generally believe that a company’s value is the present value of all of the cash it will generate in the future. However, a DCF is just one valuation metric among many, and it is not without flaws. If you still have some burning questions about this type of valuation, take a look at the Simply Wall St analysis model.
Our analysis indicates that MGY is potentially undervalued!
We’re using the 2-stage growth model, which simply means we take in account two stages of company’s growth. In the initial period the company may have a higher growth rate and the second stage is usually assumed to have a stable growth rate. To begin with, we have to get estimates of the next ten years of cash flows. Where possible we use analyst estimates, but when these aren’t available we extrapolate the previous free cash flow (FCF) from the last estimate or reported value. We assume companies with shrinking free cash flow will slow their rate of shrinkage, and that companies with growing free cash flow will see their growth rate slow, over this period. We do this to reflect that growth tends to slow more in the early years than it does in later years.
Generally we assume that a dollar today is more valuable than a dollar in the future, so we need to discount the sum of these future cash flows to arrive at a present value estimate:
10-year free cash flow (FCF) estimate
|Levered FCF ($, Millions)||US$500.0m||US$394.0m||US$336.3m||US$303.9m||US$285.1m||US$274.5m||US$269.0m||US$266.8m||US$266.9m||US$268.5m|
|Growth Rate Estimate Source||Analyst x4||Analyst x1||Est @ -14.64%||Est @ -9.65%||Est @ -6.16%||Est @ -3.72%||Est @ -2.01%||Est @ -0.81%||Est @ 0.02%||Est @ 0.61%|
|Present Value ($, Millions) Discounted @ 8.8%||US$459||US$333||US$261||US$216||US$187||US$165||US$149||US$135||US$124||US$115|
(“Est” = FCF growth rate estimated by Simply Wall St)
Present Value of 10-year Cash Flow (PVCF) = US$2.1b
The second stage is also known as Terminal Value, this is the business’s cash flow after the first stage. For a number of reasons a very conservative growth rate is used that cannot exceed that of a country’s GDP growth. In this case we have used the 5-year average of the 10-year government bond yield (2.0%) to estimate future growth. In the same way as with the 10-year ‘growth’ period, we discount future cash flows to today’s value, using a cost of equity of 8.8%.
Terminal Value (TV)= FCF2032 × (1 + g) ÷ (r – g) = US$269m× (1 + 2.0%) ÷ (8.8%– 2.0%) = US$4.0b
Present Value of Terminal Value (PVTV)= TV / (1 + r)10= US$4.0b÷ ( 1 + 8.8%)10= US$1.7b
The total value, or equity value, is then the sum of the present value of the future cash flows, which in this case is US$3.9b. In the final step we divide the equity value by the number of shares outstanding. Compared to the current share price of US$22.2, the company appears slightly overvalued at the time of writing. The assumptions in any calculation have a big impact on the valuation, so it is better to view this as a rough estimate, not precise down to the last cent.
We would point out that the most important inputs to a discounted cash flow are the discount rate and of course the actual cash flows. Part of investing is coming up with your own evaluation of a company’s future performance, so try the calculation yourself and check your own assumptions. The DCF also does not consider the possible cyclicality of an industry, or a company’s future capital requirements, so it does not give a full picture of a company’s potential performance. Given that we are looking at Magnolia Oil & Gas as potential shareholders, the cost of equity is used as the discount rate, rather than the cost of capital (or weighted average cost of capital, WACC) which accounts for debt. In this calculation we’ve used 8.8%, which is based on a levered beta of 1.233. Beta is a measure of a stock’s volatility, compared to the market as a whole. We get our beta from the industry average beta of globally comparable companies, with an imposed limit between 0.8 and 2.0, which is a reasonable range for a stable business.
SWOT Analysis for Magnolia Oil & Gas
- Earnings growth over the past year exceeded the industry.
- Debt is not viewed as a risk.
- Dividends are covered by earnings and cash flows.
- Dividend is low compared to the top 25% of dividend payers in the Oil and Gas market.
- Good value based on P/E ratio compared to estimated Fair P/E ratio.
- Annual earnings are forecast to decline for the next 3 years.
Whilst important, the DCF calculation ideally won’t be the sole piece of analysis you scrutinize for a company. It’s not possible to obtain a foolproof valuation with a DCF model. Preferably you’d apply different cases and assumptions and see how they would impact the company’s valuation. For example, changes in the company’s cost of equity or the risk free rate can significantly impact the valuation. Why is the intrinsic value lower than the current share price? For Magnolia Oil & Gas, we’ve put together three pertinent factors you should consider:
- Risks: Consider for instance, the ever-present spectre of investment risk. We’ve identified 2 warning signs with Magnolia Oil & Gas (at least 1 which is potentially serious) , and understanding these should be part of your investment process.
- Future Earnings: How does MGY’s growth rate compare to its peers and the wider market? Dig deeper into the analyst consensus number for the upcoming years by interacting with our free analyst growth expectation chart.
- Other Solid Businesses: Low debt, high returns on equity and good past performance are fundamental to a strong business. Why not explore our interactive list of stocks with solid business fundamentals to see if there are other companies you may not have considered!
PS. The Simply Wall St app conducts a discounted cash flow valuation for every stock on the NYSE every day. If you want to find the calculation for other stocks just search here.
Valuation is complex, but we’re helping make it simple.
Find out whether Magnolia Oil & Gas is potentially over or undervalued by checking out our comprehensive analysis, which includes fair value estimates, risks and warnings, dividends, insider transactions and financial health.
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This article by Simply Wall St is general in nature. We provide commentary based on historical data and analyst forecasts only using an unbiased methodology and our articles are not intended to be financial advice. It does not constitute a recommendation to buy or sell any stock, and does not take account of your objectives, or your financial situation. We aim to bring you long-term focused analysis driven by fundamental data. Note that our analysis may not factor in the latest price-sensitive company announcements or qualitative material. Simply Wall St has no position in any stocks mentioned.